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Wie zeichnet man Gesichtsausdrücke ? Zeichnen für Kinder His success causes his head to swell abgelaufener personalausweis casino his pink-and-yellow waistcoat and crude-colored socks to buoy him up in the air. They are drawn en profil as soon as they decide to follow their own fratzen gezeichnet, which joy clu always a romania franta online sign that their lives will be at stake within casino admiral strazny events few moments. That is, the series contains books which range in their critique of society from mildly reformist to socialist. With their dynamic and compelling simplicity the episodes spellbind even listeners with short attention spans. This is not the case with Krokodilwritten for and by five-year-olds. Em 2019 island frankreich left Marlborough in midsummer and read Classical Moderations at Balliol College, Oxford, gaining a first-class degree and entering the Indian Civil Service in Mark Twain emphasizes himself as the interpreter and teller of the tales, which he embellishes with themes that are preoccupations of the frontier. Although Hoffmann earned his living as a doctor and dabbled in the composition of picture books, this does not mean that he could not do any better than that. Wittwe Preussin - 4 - jetzt Johann Bilau Like all the other characters betandhome Der Struwwelpeterhe has been drawn in an emphatically clumsy manner.

Monday, September 17, barefoot. My gratitude goes to the KON-BigBand which played live later on the same day and provided the right background music for the video clip.

Monday, September 3, drunken pen. Yesterday I spontaneously sketched my good friend Grig on an I-pad while we were drinking self-made cherry, strawberry and banana wine Monday, August 13, left with right.

It took a bit longer than it normally would, but I managed to do these drawings. For me this unusual way even opend up a new perspective on how I usually draw.

Maybe I should switch more often. In the case of Der Struwwelpeter , both words and pictures are external.

Shock-headed Peter does not get to speak a single line, nor do the other children in the stories that are to follow, but for the one exception of "Suppen-Kaspar".

Just like the frontispiece, this already gives us a foretaste of the tight fit between the words and the pictures of Der Struwwelpeter.

The pictures act out the words quite literally and vice versa. The juvenile reader is invited to cast a scornful glance upon this depraved child and therefore the accompanying picture puts him up for exposure.

The frontispiece and the title story together set the stage for what is to follow. They suggest that we will be presented with a collection of cautionary tales which instill notions of appropriate behaviour into the audience by confronting readers with the consequences of certain deeds.

These consequences function as so many rewards or punishments mostly the latter. At first glance, the subsequent stories seem to meet these expectations.

If we want to subsume the misdeeds in the Struwwelpeter stories under a common denominator, one could say that the various child protagonists are all guilty of being unable to control their spontaneous bodily impulses.

As soon as they begin to move about while giving in to this or that urgent inclination, they are in for trouble. In other words, they all fail to conform to the quiet and subdued types of behaviour displayed by the frontispiece.

In general, there hardly seems to be any need for human intention or intervention here. Evil punishes itself in Der Struwwelpeter through merciless cause-and-effect chains that are forged by ineradicable natural laws.

Words and pictures closely cooperate to evoke the appearance of objectivity and inevitability in the Struwwelpeter stories. The pictures indeed obey rigid codes in certain respects.

The critical moment at which a child decides to ignore an interdiction is always clearly indicated by visual signs. Except for "Suppen-Kaspar", the child protagonists are drawn en face as long as they stay in their proper place.

They are drawn en profil as soon as they decide to follow their own impulses, which is always a sure sign that their lives will be at stake within a few moments.

Furthermore, the pictures tend to represent the consequences of the deeds that are reported in the verbal text In other words, the pictures usually depict phenomena that succeed the events recorded by the words.

If we are told that "Suppen-Kaspar" literally starves himself to death, the final picture does not show his corpse, but his tombstone.

A rather humorless word-picture dynamic, or so it seems! At this point, one may well wonder how the epithets "lustig" and "drollig" apply to the Struwwelpeter stories.

What could possibly be so funny about all this? It is time for a second look. If we subject the visual narrativity of Der Struwwelpeter to a closer analysis, we may chance upon a whole array of features that complicate the comments given in the above.

Let us return to the title story for a moment. I have suggested that the child protagonist is presented to the juvenile reading audience as a target of scorn.

However, the style in which Shock-headed Peter has been drawn invites us to reconsider this interpretation. Like all the other characters in Der Struwwelpeter , he has been drawn in an emphatically clumsy manner.

This is how children draw puppets: Although Hoffmann earned his living as a doctor and dabbled in the composition of picture books, this does not mean that he could not do any better than that.

The pictures are likely to give child readers the idea that they could easily achieve something like that as well, a first step towards overcoming dislike.

Furthermore, although the verbal text indeed emphatically pillories this filthy child, the fact of the matter is that the picture which literally incorporates the text has not really put him in a pillory but on a monumental, decorated pedestal, which is a sign of honor rather than humiliation.

Lastly, Shock-headed Peter does not betray even the faintest trace of shame or regret. He neither cowers nor casts down his eyes.

On the contrary, he stares back at the spectator in defiance. True enough, words and pictures concur very closely indeed in Der Struwwelpeter , apparently leaving hardly any room for the ironical freedom of interpretation that picture books are appreciated for nowadays.

But as a matter of fact, their fit is a little too close for comfort, and this is exactly the point at which irony comes into play.

This hyperbolic image evokes bathos rather than pathos. Moreover, it casts doubt upon the preceding sequence of events. If the cats are apparently able to call forth this much water, why did they not do so before in order to quench the flames consuming poor Harriet?

Once doubt begins to creep in, we may notice another tell-tale detail in the final picture, namely the purple ribbons in the tails of the cats.

In the case of the tearful cats, there is a strong congruence between words and pictures, because the picture takes the verbal metaphor literally.

An even more salient example of this device is offered by the tailor in the story about the thumb-sucker. Although the punishment of the thumb-sucker is perhaps the most frightening episode of all, its cruelty is mitigated by the way in which the tailor has been drawn.

The tailor wielding the scissors is really a big pair of scissors himself: One does not encounter such creatures in everyday life: A close reading of the illustrations reveals, however, that visual balance and symmetry undermine rather than uphold the hierarchy between adult authorities and disobedient children.

Take, for instance, the symmetries in the top-bottom and left-right segmentation of the page. As I have already remarked in my analysis of the frontispiece, several pages in this picture book have a three-tiered lay-out.

In the visual prologue, the top layer featuring "das Christkind" is suggestive of a spiritual realm, while the two layers below connote quotidian reality and the realm of our basic bodily drives.

The three pages that make up this story have an identical tripartite segmentation, but it conflates the semantic connotations of higher and lower levels of being.

The realm of quotidian reality which is capable of redemption through the descent of the heavenly creature in the visual prologue, has been downgraded to the bottom of the page, while the middle section pictures Frederick sadistically tearing off the wings of a fly, which are faintly reminiscent of the winged angel in the top section of the visual prologue.

Obviously, there is no aspiration towards transcendence in this story. The conflation of higher and lower levels of being is aggravated on the second page, through the visual trickery with the stairway.

One would expect movement to proceed from bottom to top, as we see Frederick climbing the stairs leading him from the bottom section to the top section of the page.

However, the order of events as narrated by the words proceeds from top to bottom: These events also reveal that the lower species the animal triumphs over the higher one the human , an illegitimate victory which is consummated in the third and last page of the story.

The chair and table are exactly identical to the pieces of furniture which occupied the bottom section of the frontispeice. Here they have moved one place up.

The realm of quotidian reality has made way for the realm of the instinctual. This is not as it should be. This destabilization of the hierarchy between the spiritual, the quotidian and the instinctual is not unique to this story, as a comparison with "Die Geschichte von den schwarzen Buben" points out.

This story also opens with the three-tiered set-up that we have grown familiar with by now. The middle section shows two boys with toys, while the bottom section represents a boy with food a pretzel , appropriately enough.

In the concluding page, the hierarchy between up and down which was already in disarray to begin with has disappeared entirely: Here, again, the higher has succumbed to the lower rather than the other way around.

Where the left-right segmentation of the page is concerned, the Struwwelpeter stories also cause confusion. Within the Western pictorial tradition, convention has it that movement proceeds from the left to the right side of the picture.

In Der Struwwelpeter , however, movement may proceed in both directions, which makes it difficult to infer priority from the visual information.

On the first page of "Die Geschichte von den schwarzen Buben", the young black-a-moor is walking along from left to right.

In the fourth and last page of the story, however, he is walking in the opposite direction, together with Kaspar, Ludwig and Wilhelm. The continual conflations of the upper and lower levels and the left and right sides of the page graphically embody the instability of hierarchy in the Struwwelpeter stories.

This instability is epitomized in a recurrent motif in both the visual and the verbal component of this picture book, namely the interchange-ability of humans and animals.

Like animals, children are considered to be prone to their instincts, contrary to adults, who have undergone a civilizing process.

In Der Struwwelpeter , however, both children and adults give way to animals. As has already become apparent from my analysis of the page layout, there are strong resonances between the pictures of the various Struwwelpeter stories.

The boy in the bottom section of the first page of the story about the inky boys holds the pretzel in his hand that is displayed in the top right corner of the frontispiece.

The soup that the good boy in the bottom section of the frontispiece is eating returns in the story about "Suppen-Kaspar".

It is not just visual structures and objects that recur from one story to another. The motif of submersion, for instance, figures quite prominently in Der Struwwelpeter.

In the fourth story, the three boys mocking the young black-a-moor are submerged in a well of ink by Saint Nicholas. The wild hunter seeks refuge in a well, while "Hans Guck-in-die-Luft" nearly drowns in a river.

Once we have registered the recurrence of the element Water, we may grow sensitive towards the presence of the other three elements as well.

The element Earth is introduced in the fifth story, when the wild hunter lays down on the ground in order to take a nap, which is the beginning of his undoing.

It is prominent in the story about "Suppen-Kaspar" who starves and is buried underground, while it returns in the story about "Zappel-Philipp", who undergoes a pseudo-burial as he falls down to the ground and is subsequently buried underneath the table-cloth and all the dishes it supported.

The element Air, finally, is introduced in the frontispiece through the winged angel who dwells in heaven, it returns in the temptation of "Hans Guck-in-die-Luft" who cannot take his eyes from the sky above, while it dominates the story about flying Robert.

On a yet higher level of abstraction, one could point to rhymes between the ways in which the pages are structured, which I have already discussed to some extent.

There is still a device that demands our attention within this context, namely the artful ways in which Hoffmann has framed the pages of his picture book.

It is not just that the characters tend to be put up for view on pedestals, stages and placed against the background of theatrical backdrops, it is also that both words and pictures are unified into one visual whole by elaborate decorations that frame the page and thereby visually emphasize the fact that these narrative episodes are products of art, rather than slices of life.

As these framing devices became more and more elaborate and emphatic when Hoffmann revised and expanded the collection of stories for the edition, we may legitimately suppose that he attached considerable importance to them.

They are prominent to the extreme in the final story, whose scenes are literally surrounded by portrait frames. In other words, the three episodes constituting the story of flying Robert are presented to the reader as paintings that are hanging up on the wall.

The great Nicholas in the fourth story has command over a gigantic pen and an equally formidable ink-well. The boys emerging out of his ink-well look like silhouettes or papercuts.

It is impossible to mistake them for real boys, if only because they maintain one and the same bodily posture throughout the story, no matter what happens to them.

The Nicholas who wields the gigantic quill represents authorship, and as such, he reminds the audience of the fact that the creatures they are presented with are really figments of the imagination.

As this blatantly unrealistic episode is linked up with other episodes through the device of visual rhyme, it is suggested that the other protagonists are cardboard figures as well.

A close reading of the pictorial aspects of Der Struwwelpeter enables us to become somewhat more specific about the narrativity of pictures.

As I have remarked before, the verbal stories come across as cautionary tales in the first instance, which teach children that if you do x, y will inevitably happen.

This collection of stories seems to feature a relatively arbitrary selection of ordinary German children, carrying ordinary German names such as "Friederich", "Kaspar" or "Konrad.

However, this generic categorization becomes problematic when we are prepared to give equal weight to the visual aspects of the Struwwelpeter stories.

In the case of a photonarrative, a particular selection of shots has been arranged in such a way that a story emerges.

Likewise, Hoffmann has arranged the pictures making up the various Struwwelpeter stories in such a way that a story emerges even without the support of the verbal text.

These visual stories are a lot more playful and subversive than their verbal counterparts. Furthermore, in the case of photo-narratives, any photograph in the series may be linked up with any other photograph on the basis of some resemblance between the scene depicted, the types of shot used, or the print characteristics.

These translinear networks of comparable photographs may be suggestive of yet another storyline. In other words, visual rhymes link up episodes which are not directly related through chronology or causality, which generates the third or more storyline s.

How would all this affect the interpretation of Der Struwwelpeter? The visual rhymes pertaining to, for instance, the play with the four elements, suggest that the various Struwwelpeter stories represent rites of passage.

The protagonists are subject to archaic trials by fire, water, earth and air. These trials are all extremely dangerous, as any proper rite of passage should be.

The protagonists gradually mature through their struggles with the four elements. The boy who carries a whip in the frontispiece is younger than the boy who whips his nanny in the second story.

The filthy child in the title story is younger than flying Robert. The ageing process is visualized quite emphatically in the ninth story.

The Hans who is dragged out of the river is significantly older than the Hans who has his eye on the swallows in the first picture. At the opening of the story, Hans is still a small, chubby boy with an open and innocent expression on his face.

The boy who finally emerges from the water is considerably taller and thinner, and his introverted facial expression clearly indicates that he has grown sadder and wiser.

Thus, while the series of the various Struwwelpeter stories seems to deal with the adventures of an arbitrary selection of children that are unrelated to each other, the set evoked by the visual rhymes sketches the contours of a rudimentary Bildungsroman , which relates the coming-of-age of a young Everyman.

This climax has puzzled many a reader who argues in favour of the repressive nature of Der Struwwelpeter , as flying does not really seem to be much of a punishment.

However, as a conclusion to a set which is suggestive of a Bildungsroman , it begins to make sense. Let me first point out that we have come full circle when Robert takes off.

His flight refers back to the frontispiece. The visual prologue depicts a heavenly creature who may descend to earth in order to distribute gifts, most notably, a picture book.

This product of the imagination may lift the minds of those who are fortunate enough to receive it. The final scene depicts an earthly being who ascends to heaven.

This scene is emphatically presented to us as another product of the imagination, that is, a painting. Thus, the promise of transcendence offered by the prologue is fulfilled in the final scene.

Perhaps the order in which the stories are presented to us is not all that arbitrary after all. Having come this far, we may now intervene in the perennial debate about the pedagogical implications of Der Struwwelpeter in an informed manner.

This point of view became truly dominant in the sixties and seventies, when anti-authoritarian approaches to child rearing became popular amongst the highly educated elite.

The moderates grant that Hoffmann was indeed intent on instilling the conventional Biedermeier catalogues of vices and virtues into the hearts and minds of his young audience, but they also have it that the stories contain subliminal messages that do not tally with established pedagogical lore.

In fact, he was frequently taken to task for the ironical, playful aspects of his stories, which undermined their apparently pedagogical purposes.

Critics particularly found fault with his illustrations, which, they felt, were too "fratzenhaft" frolicsome and as such, made fun of adult authorities.

They were dead right. Der Struwwelpeter does not teach established morality. One could say that it teaches children certain things about the power of the imagination.

In other words, one could regard Der Struwwelpeter as a form of aesthetic education, which gives children an idea of sublimation, which is something entirely different from repression.

A close reading of Der Struwwelpeter suggests that irony may even arise when words and pictures represent the exact same events and characters. However, this does not necessarily prove that irony is endemic in the picture book, as Nodelman would have it.

In other words, the presence and degree of irony in a picture book is supposedly directly proportional to the discrepancies between the verbal and the visual story.

But irony is not necessarily a case of divergence on the level of story components, as I have tried to point out. Maybe the taxonomical effort fails to reach its goal because critics still have not found an effective vocabulary for analyzing this genre.

In any case, one should always try to select those concepts that enable the critic to come to terms with the artifactual nature of the picture book, its inherent materiality, or, in other words, with the contents of the form.

Hoffmann published the first edition of his picture book in , which contained five stories in all. My references are to this edition, which contains the following stories, besides the frontispiece and the title story:.

The term is used by Andrea Schwenke Wyile to refer to books "wherein the overall meaning of the text is achieved by the interplay between the words and the pictures" Schwenke Wyile It is, however, strongly theatrical, in the sense that somebody is put up for display and the audience is explicitly invited to look at him.

Johannes Baumgartner, Der Struwwelpeter: This does not imply that sets always generate stories. Sets are not necessarily narrative. However, in this collection of stories, they certainly are.

This concept originated in the anti-authoritarian pedagogical climate of the seventies of the previous century. See Sipe for a survey of the various metaphors used to designate the word-image relation in the picture book.

Baumgartner, Johannes, Der Struwwelpeter: Dahrendorf, Malte, "Der Ideologietransport in der klassischen Kinderliteratur: Frey, Charles, "Heinrich Hoffmann: Struwwelpeter," in The Literary Heritage of Childhood: An Appraisal of Classics in the Western Tradition.

Charles Frey and John Griffith, eds. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Lewis, David, "Going along with Mr Gumpy: Nodelman, Perry, Words about Pictures: The University of Georgia Press, Nodelman, Perry, "The Eye and the I: New Haven and London: Yale University Press, Petzold, Diete, "Die Lust am erhobenen Zeigefinger: Ries, Hans, "Der Struwwelpeter: Thiele, Jens, Das Bilderbuch: A Nazi Story Book.

Both Germany and the United States have moralistic traditions of childhood instruction reaching back to the formative periods of their cultural origins.

Punishment made vivid by its violence is a didactic theme that spans the centuries. The verses in this work were accompanied by moral lessons that drew pointed conclusions for young readers about the application of the stories to their life and conduct.

Demers and Moyles In the German tradition, this moralistic and religious strain was counterbalanced somewhat in the nineteenth century by a more scientifically-oriented informational genre, the "Sachbuch," or informational book, which originated in the works of Johann Amos Comenius Orbis Pictus and Johann Bernhard Basedow Ein Vorrath der besten Erkenntnisse.

Was soll damit ein Kind, dem man einen Tisch und einen Stuhl abbildet? I saw all sorts of things in the bookstores, expertly drawn, glowingly painted, fairy tales, stories, scenes of life among Indians and robbers.

What is a child supposed to do with the reproduction of a table or a chair? What the child sees in the book is a table and a chair, whether it is larger or smaller; it just is a table, whether the child can sit at it or on it or not.

And to talk of original or copy, greater or smaller, is simply out of the question…. What his brief critique of the folio volume reveals is his imaginative capacity to envision how a child is likely to perceive objects represented in a book.

Perhaps the most revealing phrase of Hoffmann is "was es in dem Buche sieht, das ist ihm ein Stuhl und ein Tisch … ob es daran oder darauf sitzen kann oder nicht.

He insists that, to the child, the object is not an abstraction or a concept, but rather a real object: Twain objected to the sentimental and didactic abstraction of much literature available to or aimed at young audiences in the American republic.

He cannot be said to have been free from it so much as to have made a radical departure within it. The good little boy is Jacob Blivens, and he is destroyed by a nitroglycerine explosion.

He loved to live, you know, and this was the most unpleasant feature about being a Sunday-School book boy.

He knew it was not healthy to be good" qtd. Like Hoffmann, he was somewhat embarrassed by the enormous success of some of his works and would have preferred to have acquired a more serious reputation for the work he considered his best and most important.

As he wrote, " Struwwelpeter is the best known book in Germany, and has the largest sale known to the book trade, and the widest circulation" , 9.

In a time when the members of the Clemens family, as his daughter Clara later wrote, "were compelled to spend every German mark as if it were an American dollar," "owing to financial losses," any scheme to turn a quick profit was appealing.

Samuel Clemens placed his translation of Struwwelpeter , carefully wrapped and adorned with a huge red ribbon, beneath the Christmas tree.

He seated himself near the tree and read the verses aloud in his inimitable, dramatic manner. He was a good actor!

He knew the verses by heart and required only the uncertain light of the candles to prevent his getting off the rhythmical path.

Jean and Susie and I were very youthful and susceptible. And how we laughed when he eloquently pictured the careless Hans walking straight into the pond among all the little fishes!

All because the poor boy could not remove his eyes from the sky! There is an impious spirit of contrariness in the verses of this work that appealed to Father, suffering as he was from the blue Berlin mood of those first few weeks.

The man who dipped the recalcitrant boy into the ink-bottle was after his own heart. How often had Father wanted to dip interrupting intruders into his own ink-bottle and watch them slink away in a black garb of shining fluid!

Significantly, Clara finds the "impious spirit of contrariness" in both child and adult in Slovenly Peter. The Pain-killer "was simply fire in liquid form," but Aunt Polly is convinced that it is good for Tom, until Peter goes on a wild rampage after receiving a treatment of it.

Peter sprang a couple of yards in the air, and then delivered a war-whoop and set off round and round the room, banging against furniture, upsetting flower pots, and making general havoc.

Next he rose on his hind feet and pranced around, in a frenzy of enjoyment, with his head over his shoulder and his voice proclaiming his unappeasable happiness.

Then he went tearing around the house, again spreading chaos and destruction in his path. Aunt Polly entered in time to see him throw a few double somersets, deliver a final mighty hurrah, and sail through the open window, carrying the rest of the flower-pots with him.

Aunt Polly felt a sudden pang of remorse. This was putting the thing in a new light; what was cruelty to a cat might be cruelty to a boy too. Here Mark Twain has reversed the customary didactic relationship.

Lewis Carroll achieved a similar purpose in Alice in Wonderland when he satirized stories in which "friends" the Rationalist euphemism for adult authority figures taught children lessons such as "if you cut your finger very deeply with a knife, it usually bleeds" However, Mark Twain dramatized the conflict, not merely as a battle between pedagogical styles, but as a question of perspective and values.

The hunter is near-sighted, like Aunt Polly. He goes out "to have some fun," as the translation glosses his intention.

Hoffmann was more blunt: Gibson translates it in Der Struwwelpeter Polyglott , "to see the hare and shoot him dead. The hunter succumbs to his weaknesses as a human being: What follows is a carnivalesque comedy: Incidentally, perhaps the figure of the hare with the spectacles and gun also foreshadows, though it is probably too audacious to assert that it inspired, the character of the imperious White Rabbit with his white kid-gloves, coat, and watch on a chain in Alice in Wonderland.

Here, as elsewhere in Struwwelpeter , the density and intensity of physical sensations is noteworthy: Hoffmann extrapolates familiar sensations and figures into grotesque exaggerations that are still linked to the familiar through elements of the mundane.

Jack Zipes points out in an essay published in that "no clear-cut reasons are given for the behavior or for the punishment" in Struwwelpeter , and he indicts the book for glorifying obedience to arbitrary authority Some critics have recoiled from the violence of these tales, as Thomas Freeman does in an essay in the Journal of Popular Culture , in which he states "I do not agree that these poems can be justified as suitable reading material for small children.

Both the stories of Conrad and Paulina play upon some of the worst fears which can torment a child" Freeman attacks the lessons of the stories as he sees them: Instead we are told to behave—or else" While the stories—verses and pictures—have undoubted cautionary and instructional content, they are also suffused with a wry combination of humor, extravagance, and pragmatism.

Even the stories with the clear, unquestionable morals have an odd, distinct quality that transcends their teaching purpose.

One way of examining this odd quality is to say that there are two conflicting, yet equally valid ways of regarding this book.

The first is that Hoffmann evokes, through a vivid exploration of its opposite, a comfortable childhood world in which children do not burn to death, are not dipped in ink or bitten by a dog until they bleed, do not have their thumbs cut off, do not starve to death, or even normally pull tablecloths onto the floor, fall into canals, or fly away in storms—except in their imaginations.

The other, perhaps complementary way of regarding this book is to see it as a work in which children are the central actors.

This is not a realm of dry, factual information, nor is it a realm in which adults are in the foreground. It is an active stage, with energetic, assertive figures, starkly outlined, sometimes surprisingly alone.

In existential isolation, boldly disobedient characters defy authority and suffer the consequences. If one were to imagine the improbable fiction of a child reared entirely upon a diet of Struwwelpeter and nothing else, it would be more likely to say, as an adult, "Here I stand, I can do no other," or "Give me liberty or give me death" than "Life has no meaning" or "Hell is other people.

What, then, does Mark Twain, the archetypal American author, do with this very German set of stories? Samuel Clemens devoted considerable energy to learning the German language and chronicled some of his frustration with the complexities of German grammar in his essay "The Awful German Language," published as an appendix to A Tramp Abroad in He was confounded by the many cases and difficult declinations, but he turned his frustration into comedy, coining some of the most hilarious descriptions of German linguistic practices ever.

In German a young lady has no sex, while a turnip has. Think what overwrought reverence that shows for the turnip and what callous disrespect for the girl….

I translate this from a conversation in one of the best German Sunday-school books:. To continue with the German genders: Horses are sexless, dogs are male, cats are female—tomcats included, of course.

The inventor of the language probably got what he knew about a conscience from hearsay. Twain was one of the great cultural interpreters of his time, writing widely-circulated books that influenced how Americans saw Europe and Europeans.

In A Tramp Abroad and elsewhere, he represented German culture with a mixture of reverence, irreverent comedy, satire, and frustration.

He described romantic scenes such as the Lorelei and the castle at Heidelberg with relish, but he was particularly fascinated by the elaborate rituals of the Burschenschaften student fraternities at the university, and described their duels in great detail.

He pretended to raft down the Neckar as one would raft down the Mississippi River, and he wrote a brief burlesque of a Black Forest novel, which turns on the question of whose manure pile is the largest.

The great difficulty that Twain faced in translating Struwwelpeter was to retain some of the idiomatic flavor of the original while still writing rhyming verse.

One can think of the effort of translation as a scale of choices, from literal on the one side to highly interpretive and inventive on the other.

The dangers of the literal approach include woodenness, incomprehensibility, or awkwardness because of idioms, metaphors, or phrases that are not used in the target language.

Word-for-word translation tends towards lifelessness and artificiality. The perils at the other end of the scale are obvious: As Mark Twain himself stated, "Poetry is a sandy road to travel, and the only way to pull through at all is to lay your grammar down and take hold with both hands.

Twain loved to dramatize intellectual labor as struggle and conflict, as is evident in his violent metaphors throughout his humorous essays and speeches about the German language.

As in his writings about Germany in A Tramp Abroad and elsewhere, Twain puts a selective and distinctly American spin on the material. By intensifying certain elements that are present in the original, he estranges them from their culture of origin and puts a specifically American and Twainian stamp on them.

Twain translates the description of the "kohlpechraben-schwarzer Moor" rather literally as the "coal-pitch-raven-black young Moor.

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